Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck


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  1. says: READ Congo Een geschiedenis Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck The Democratic Republic of Congo is about as fucked as a country can get and one of the most defining examples of a failed state It

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    READ Congo Een geschiedenis Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck This book provides us with a history of Congo from the days of the Belgian King Leopold II to the present day It is a history of the

  3. says: FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck

    READ Congo Een geschiedenis David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck While difficult to read at times Congo is a horribly mesmerizing account of the last 150 years of Congo's history From Leopold II and early colonialism to present day conflicts life in the Congo has been an endlessly bloody affairReybrouck's book is an important work He uses memories and anecdotes of natives to tell the country's history Most histories particularly African histories have been written by the colonizers

  4. says: FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck Early on I was prepared to give this book a 2 or 3 star review I found Chapter 4 about Congolese religion uite interesting but other than that there wasn't much in the first 5 chapters that really grabbed meThe early chapters are a menagerie of names places dates The years and characters change uickly There’s not much to grab hold of Every chapter feels like the start of a new bookFinally things start to pi

  5. says: FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck This book was widely popular in Van Reybrouck's native Belgium when it first came out in 2010 and with good reason He goes back to essentially prehistoric times and traces the history of the Congo or today The Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC up until the times leading up to just a few years ago It is an expansive history whic

  6. says: FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck This magisterial history of Congo keeps the readers interest in a country which may not be of immediate interest to readers The history of Congo goes back 90000 years when the first evidence of human habitation of the area

  7. says: Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck Excellent read mainly due to the balanced composition a historical narrative interwoven with testimonies that sometimes are really captivating Reybrouck of course depends on witnesses to make things a little tangible but this occasionally weakens his story especially in the turbulent period of Kasavubu and Lumumba Also the real cha

  8. says: READ Congo Een geschiedenis FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck This review is partly written with sarcasm but has no intention to offend any of the people of Congo or any other African stateAn interesting well researched book that presents the History of Congo from the beginning of the slave trade until mo

  9. says: Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck

    Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD If you are looking for an honest account of what happened in Congo Free State under the rule of king Leopold II read Adam Hochschild'

  10. says: Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck READ Congo Een geschiedenis

    FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van Reybrouck David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD Congo Een geschiedenis) [Pdf Read] ´ David Van Reybrouck This book is unusual in its reliance on oral history However given the events that have occurred in Congo Ziare Congo over the period 1960 2010 it is difficult to see how a complete picture could have been assembled using only document sources The necessity of oral history approach also indicates how much Congo has lost in the disor

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READ Congo Een geschiedenis

FREE DOWNLOAD ↠ Congo Een geschiedenis David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD READ Congo Een geschiedenis E laatste tien jaar en de recente economische crisis Van 1885 tot 1908 werd het land bestierd door koning Leopold ii die een fortuin verdiende met de exploitatie van rubberDe kolonisatie door België in de periode van 1908 tot 1960 zorgde voor industrialisatie en infrastructuur maar werd ook gekenmerkt door paternalisme zo niet betutteling De onverhoedse overgang van kolonie naar onafhankelijke staat rond 1960 is een adembenemend verhaal vol idealisme en gekonkel Het nieuwe land stortte zich in een turbulent avontu. This magisterial history of Congo keeps the readers interest in a country which may not be of immediate interest to readers The history of Congo goes back 90000 years when the first evidence of human habitation of the area is well documented Congo s prehistory is not static like other places there is an arc of development from hunter gathering existence to agriculture and iron working but the pace of change really picks up in the 1870s with the arrival of europeans into the interior of central Africa Livingstone and Stanley entering the congo in 1875 and the making of congo as a personal possession of Leopold of Belgium The hunt for rubber by Leopold is well documented in King Leopold s Ghost and the massacres of congo peoples for this greed The story continues with the Belgian Government taking control in 1908 and the colonial period from then until 1960 the movement for independence the rivalry between Lumumba and Mobutu and the murder of Lumumba with CIA help The Kleptocracy of Mobutu through the nineties is well documented and the stuggle for democracy in the 1990s Then from 1997 to 2002 the great war of Africa took place Roughly at the same time as the Ira war it garnered little media attention but has killed the most people of any war since WWII The story ends in the present as this shattered country tries to pick up the peices and put together a democracy in the ruins Very well written and translated Bead Crochet Jewelry: An Inspired Journey Through 27 Designs (Knit Crochet) jaar en de recente economische crisis Van 1885 tot 1908 werd het land bestierd door koning Leopold ii die een fortuin verdiende met de exploitatie van rubberDe kolonisatie door België in de periode van 1908 tot 1960 zorgde voor industrialisatie en infrastructuur maar werd ook gekenmerkt door paternalisme zo niet betutteling De onverhoedse overgang van kolonie naar onafhankelijke staat rond 1960 is een adembenemend verhaal vol idealisme en gekonkel Het nieuwe land stortte zich in een turbulent avontu. This magisterial history of Congo keeps the readers interest in a country which may not be of immediate interest to readers The history of Congo goes back 90000 years when the first evidence of human habitation of the area is well documented Congo s prehistory is not static like other places there is an arc of development from hunter gathering existence to agriculture and iron working but the pace of change really picks up in the 1870s with the arrival of europeans into the interior of central Africa Livingstone and Stanley entering the congo in 1875 and the making of congo as a personal possession of Leopold of Belgium The hunt for rubber by Leopold is well documented in King Leopold s Ghost and the massacres of congo peoples for this greed The story continues with the Belgian Government taking control in 1908 and the colonial period from then until 1960 the movement for independence the rivalry between Lumumba and Mobutu and the murder of Lumumba with CIA help The Kleptocracy of Mobutu through the nineties is well documented and the stuggle for democracy in the 1990s Then from 1997 to 2002 the great war of Africa took place Roughly at the same time as the Ira war it garnered little media attention but has killed the most people of any war since WWII The story ends in the present as this shattered country tries to pick up the peices and put together a democracy in the ruins Very well written and translated

FREE READ ↠ MUABANBATDONGSAN.CO ô David Van ReybrouckCongo Een geschiedenis

FREE DOWNLOAD ↠ Congo Een geschiedenis David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD READ Congo Een geschiedenis Ur dat steeds wilder en chaotischer werd en na tweeëndertig jaar dictatuur onder Mobutu leidde tot een van de dodelijkste conflicten sinds de Tweede Wereldoorlog Van Reybrouck baseert zich niet alleen op zeldzaam archiefmateriaal en baanbrekend onderzoek maar vooral ook op honderden gesprekken die hij met Congolezen voerdeZijn ooggetuigen gaan van eeuwlingen tot kindsoldaten van rebellenleiders tot smokkelaars van ministers tot maniokverkoopsters Hun verhalen heeft de auteur in zijn grote geschiedenis geïntegreer. This review is partly written with sarcasm but has no intention to offend any of the people of Congo or any other African stateAn interesting well researched book that presents the History of Congo from the beginning of the slave trade until modern times 2010 Some parts of the book were very complex and hard to follow because there are so many people and organizations involved it became hard to follow Altogether a nice read if you manage to follow all the different names and organizations and wars and incidentsCAN YOU SEE THE ABSURD IN THIS REVIEWIf the people of Congo would only have a history with less incidents and strange names and organizations and politics then people would read about them and give this book a high mark in goodreads and then maybe someone would do something HoweverThe people of Congo were raped and murdered and robbed and oppressed and sold to slavery and left to starve and forced to work in mines and had their hands cut of and had their children stolen and had their villages burnt and had there minerals stolen were forced to work on rubber plantations and died from sleeping sickness and died from smallpox and had to fight in two world wars and corrupted and caused to live without roads and caused to live without electricity and forced to become refugees and forced to admit refugees from other countries and caused to participate in bogus elections and forced to live without elections ByThe slave traders and the King Leopold II of Belgium and the conference of Berlin that gave him the land and the Belgians and the Force Publiue army and Baron Wahis and tribunaux indig nes and Moise Tshombe and South Kasai and Joseph Ileo and Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Mobutu and the US support for Mobuto and US Presidents Richard Nixon Ronald Reagan and George H W Bush who met with Mobuto and Rwanda and the Hutu militia forces Interahamwe and the FAZ and the Tutsi s and Uganda and Laurent D sir Kabila and the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo AFDL and Paul Kagame and the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie RCD and the MLC leaded by Jean Pierre Bemba and Laurent Nkunda and the RCD GOMA and the CNDP and Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda FDLR and Bosco Ntaganda and the March 23 movement and G d on Kyungu Mutanga and the Mai Mai Kata Katanga and the Nationalist and Integrationist Front FNI and Joseph Kony s LRA and The Chinese In wars and conflicts such asThe First Congo war and Second Congo war and the as M23 rebellion and the Ituri conflictAND THEREFORE NOBODY REALLY KNOWS AND CAN FOLLOW WHAT IS ACTUALLY GOING ON THERE BUT400000 women are raped annually in Congo236% of men in the Eastern Region of the country have been exposed to sexual violence as victims estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from 900000 to 5400000 and I assume this only in the modern warsAnd the list is longThe civil war in Congo was the deadliest conflict since World War II and it created the largest humanitarian crisis in the world More than five million people died from 1998 to 2007 as domestic and foreign armed groups fought to control the territory destabilizing much of Central and Southern Africa Babies and elderly grandmothers were raped Some two million people and as many as 80 percent of the inhabitants of Congo s eastern provinces fled their homes to escape the violenceAnd the world does not do muchIf it would be Americans or Russians or Israelis or many other western or nonwestern countries something would be done Why is itAre we racistsIs it because we don t careIs it because we don t care enoughIs it because we don t know what to doIs it because most of us have not heard of itPossibly all of the above in various percentagesCongo has been a victim of capitalism since the days of the slave trade and is a victim until nowSlaves copper diamonds and cobalt ore have all been in demand by the western capitalistic countries How they got to the west was never a concern as long as they got them As long as there is demand there is a fortune to be made for those who supply and with that fortune comes power The welfare of the people of Congo was never a factor in the capitalistic euation It is a negative result The there is demand for the product the situation of the people of Congo is worse I really don t know what to do maybe some ideas can be found herehttpwwwnytimescom20120623opi The Mindfulness and Acceptance Workbook for Depression: Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Move Through Depression and Create a Life Worth Living (A New Harbinger Self-Help Workbook) jaar dictatuur onder Mobutu leidde tot een van de dodelijkste conflicten sinds de Tweede Wereldoorlog Van Reybrouck baseert zich niet alleen op zeldzaam archiefmateriaal en baanbrekend onderzoek maar vooral ook op honderden gesprekken die hij met Congolezen voerdeZijn ooggetuigen gaan van eeuwlingen tot kindsoldaten van rebellenleiders tot smokkelaars van ministers tot maniokverkoopsters Hun verhalen heeft de auteur in zijn grote geschiedenis geïntegreer. This review is partly written with sarcasm but has no intention to offend any of the people of Congo or any other African stateAn interesting well researched book that presents the History of Congo from the beginning of the slave trade until modern times 2010 Some parts of the book were very complex and hard to follow because there are so many people and organizations involved it became hard to follow Altogether a nice read if you manage to follow all the different names and organizations and wars and incidentsCAN YOU SEE THE ABSURD IN THIS REVIEWIf the people of Congo would only have a history with less incidents and strange names and organizations and politics then people would read about them and give this book a high mark in goodreads and then maybe someone would do something HoweverThe people of Congo were raped and murdered and robbed and oppressed and sold to slavery and left to starve and forced to work in mines and had their hands cut of and had their children stolen and had their villages burnt and had there minerals stolen were forced to work on rubber plantations and died from sleeping sickness and died from smallpox and had to fight in two world wars and corrupted and caused to live without roads and caused to live without electricity and forced to become refugees and forced to admit refugees from other countries and caused to participate in bogus elections and forced to live without elections ByThe slave traders and the King Leopold II of Belgium and the conference of Berlin that gave him the land and the Belgians and the Force Publiue army and Baron Wahis and tribunaux indig nes and Moise Tshombe and South Kasai and Joseph Ileo and Cyrille Adoula and Joseph Mobutu and the US support for Mobuto and US Presidents Richard Nixon Ronald Reagan and George H W Bush who met with Mobuto and Rwanda and the Hutu militia forces Interahamwe and the FAZ and the Tutsi s and Uganda and Laurent D sir Kabila and the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo AFDL and Paul Kagame and the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Democratie RCD and the MLC leaded by Jean Pierre Bemba and Laurent Nkunda and the RCD GOMA and the CNDP and Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda FDLR and Bosco Ntaganda and the March 23 movement and G d on Kyungu Mutanga and the Mai Mai Kata Katanga and the Nationalist and Integrationist Front FNI and Joseph Kony s LRA and The Chinese In wars and conflicts such asThe First Congo war and Second Congo war and the as M23 rebellion and the Ituri conflictAND THEREFORE NOBODY REALLY KNOWS AND CAN FOLLOW WHAT IS ACTUALLY GOING ON THERE BUT400000 women are raped annually in Congo236% of men in the Eastern Region of the country have been exposed to sexual violence as victims estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from 900000 to 5400000 and I assume this only in the modern warsAnd the list is longThe civil war in Congo was the deadliest conflict since World War II and it created the largest humanitarian crisis in the world More than five million people died from 1998 to 2007 as domestic and foreign armed groups fought to control the territory destabilizing much of Central and Southern Africa Babies and elderly grandmothers were raped Some two million people and as many as 80 percent of the inhabitants of Congo s eastern provinces fled their homes to escape the violenceAnd the world does not do muchIf it would be Americans or Russians or Israelis or many other western or nonwestern countries something would be done Why is itAre we racistsIs it because we don t careIs it because we don t care enoughIs it because we don t know what to doIs it because most of us have not heard of itPossibly all of the above in various percentagesCongo has been a victim of capitalism since the days of the slave trade and is a victim until nowSlaves copper diamonds and cobalt ore have all been in demand by the western capitalistic countries How they got to the west was never a concern as long as they got them As long as there is demand there is a fortune to be made for those who supply and with that fortune comes power The welfare of the people of Congo was never a factor in the capitalistic euation It is a negative result The there is demand for the product the situation of the people of Congo is worse I really don t know what to do maybe some ideas can be found herehttpwwwnytimescom20120623opi

David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD

FREE DOWNLOAD ↠ Congo Een geschiedenis David Van Reybrouck ô 1 FREE DOWNLOAD READ Congo Een geschiedenis Er is aan het begin van de eenentwintigste eeuw nauwelijks een roeriger natie dan Congo het reusachtige land in het hart van Afrika dat barst van de grondstoffen die onontbeerlijk zijn in onze moderne tijd – én van de gruwelijke conflicten Hoe kon de vroegere relatief rustige kolonie van België sinds 1960 onafhankelijk zo veranderen David Van Reybrouck beschrijft voor het eerst de verbijsterende geschiedenis van Congo van ruim voor de komst van de ontdekkingsreiziger Stanley tot en met de invloed van China in d. The Democratic Republic of Congo is about as fucked as a country can get and one of the most defining examples of a failed state It is also and this is not a coincidence a site of crucial importance for the resources of the modern world from rubber and ivory in the nineteenth century through uranium during the Cold War to the coltan inside every iPhone and Playstation 4 it s all been supplied from this vast country where life expectancy is 49 and three uarters of the population have no access to clean drinking waterThis is a book to sap your reserves of hope at every turn when some appalling political status uo is finally brought to an end it seems to be succeeded only by something even worse A grotesuely oppressive colonial regime is followed by an independent republic of near total anarchy this in turn is superseded by a vicious dictatorship which gives way only to the orgiastic violence that has been the First and Second Congo Wars All the time DRC sits on a greater natural wealth than probably any other country on earthThe exploitation started early The cruelty of the Belgian overlordship has become proverbial though van Reybrouck a Belgian himself takes a much nuanced view than I had been expecting Obviously discussion of this period has become dominated by the influence of Adam Hochschild s King Leopold s Ghost and although van Reybrouck does not attack this work directly in the text he does assert as part of his voluminous bibliography that it depended upon a talent for generating dismay than on any shades of subtlety Hochschild s perspective is often very black and white Even so it s not like the Belgians come off well hereTheir regime under which ninety nine percent of the country was effectively nationalised was grossly abusive in its very structure killing perhaps twenty percent of the population through institutionalised forced labour But it wasn t all business the system allowed plenty of leeway to individual sadists too Ren de Parmentier for instance had the vegetation cleared around his house so that he could shoot at passers by from his veranda while L on Fi vez a model of efficiency managed to murder 572 people in his first four months of public service Perhaps even sickening though was the psychological effect on generations of Congolese who were raised to have as few skills as possible and to think of themselves as inherently inferior beings The training began early kids at missionary schools had to sing in SwahiliOnce we were idiotsSinning day by daySand fleas on our feetHeads full of mouldThank you reverend fathersTo have claimed such a huge colony at all seems like an act of considerable hubris comparable as Jean Stengers pointed out to establishing a few stations along the Rhine from Rotterdam to Basel and thereby claiming sovereignty over all of Western Europe It could not hold and when it did finally collapse it all happened very uickly In 1959 the prominent cleric Petrus Wijnants was still exclaiming Independence Perhaps within seventy five years but certainly not within fifty But the country would be independent by the following yearWhy so fast Because the Belgians by this stage could see the writing on the wall and they wanted above all to avoid a conflict scenario they could see what was happening to France in Algeria So the delegation of Congolese negotiators all hopelessly inexperienced and trying to one up each other in the intemperance of their demands found to their amazement that their every reuest was being acceded to on the spot Independence in five years No two years In twelve months The Belgians simply signed on the dotted line desperate it seemed to cut and runAnd they did run Having gutted the place of rubber and ivory they departed en masse leaving Congo with zero administrators or even skilled workers at all on the day of its independence the country had a grand total of sixteen university graduates One six Results were horrific The first republic van Reybrouck writes was total inextricable chaos an apocalyptic era in which everything that could go wrong did go wrong Thank you reverend fathersThe country simply broke Independent statelets were declared in various places most dramatically in the mineral rich region of Katanga in the southeast where secessionists were backed by unbelievably the Belgian military which had only just left They also had the help of such notorious and picturesuely named mercenaries as Colonel Mad Mike Hoare and Jean Black Jack Schramme even Che Guevara made a brief appearance before uite clearly deciding Fuck this A four way power struggle between the major political figures Kasavubu Lumumba Tshombe and Mobutu was like one of Shakespeare s history plays and made worse by Cold War wrangling among the international communityIt was Katangan forces and their international accomplices who eventually murdered the country s first prime minister Patrice Lumumba Lumumba has traditionally been seen as something of a tragic hero f ted in the West as the great lost hope of Congolese politics this was certainly the received wisdom when I worked in newsrooms But van Reybrouck argues convincingly that he was irreparably weak and inexperienced flailing wildly on international assignments and offending the State Department by asking them to arrange him a blonde call girl during his stay Five years and as many governments after independence the whole system was swept aside in a military coup led by Lieutenant General Mobutu with backing from the CIAMobutu brought stability but it was the stability of totalitarianism He Africanised everything European Christian names were out replaced by ancestral postnoms so his own name changed from Joseph D sir Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga while all the placenames changed too including that of the country which now became Za re after a cartographer s error the Portuguese who first landed at the Congo estuary had asked locals what the mass of water was called Nzadi they replied River It was written down as Za re I couldn t help being reminded of the mountain in the Terry Pratchett novel which translates to your finger you fool the idea being that explorers simply grabbed the first native pointed at a landmark and asked What s that Part of Mobutu s nation building was a crackdown on tribalism from now on everyone was simply a Za rian So obsessed was he with national unity that a popular joke went round about how during lovemaking he would not cry out a va jaillir I m going to come but instead a va za re But all of this was predicated on a monumentally strong centre a dictatorship which arrogated all the country s resources and riches to one central figure plus a few family and friends While most people saw spending power vanish and lived in complete deprivation Mobutu kicked back in luxury in Gbadolite an astonishing palace complex hidden in the jungle This Brobdingnagian extravagance featured an international airport big enough to land a Concorde three palaces covered in jewels and marble banks a hypermodern hotel a new hospital and even a Chinese village with pagodas and imported Chinese people Here Mobutu indulged himself with his ministers wives and the two identical twins he was sleeping with one of whom he hastily married ahead of an official visit from the PopeAs so often in this book you find yourself desperate to see someone get rid of this revolting ogre only to be schooled yet again in the need to be careful what you wish for Again the trouble started in the east Following the Rwandan genocide when the Tutsi dominated RPF took power in Kigali thousands of Hutus fled over the border into eastern Za re fearing reprisals Subseuent events would show how right their instincts were In fact many of the Hutus that entered Za re had had nothing to do with the genocide though some elements of the Hutu armies were among them and were able to organise themselves near the border This was the reason or if you prefer the pretext for Rwanda to launch a full invasion of Za re supported by Uganda and with the longtime Congolese rebel leader Laurent D sir Kabila as the figureheadKabila marched through the country pausing at every Hutu refugee camp to chop everybody to death with machetes until he reached Kinshasa where to make a long story short he deposed Mobutu and became president in May 1997 Curtain This is what s known as the First Congo WarThe Second Congo War picks up immediately from its preuel Kabila desperate to show that he was not in thrall to his foreign backers promptly ordered all Rwandan and Ugandan troops out of the country which was now renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo In response invoking the need to protect Tutsi groups in eastern DRC they simply invaded again only this time against Kabila instead of with him Having massacred thousands of Hutu refugees during his own march to power Kabila now with jaw dropping expediency armed these same groups to fight against RwandaThe conflict drew in nine different African countries and an alphabet soup of related militias the MLC the RCD G the RCD K the RCD N the RCD ML Since 1998 at least three million and perhaps as many as five million people have been killed in hostilities in Congo alone than in the media saturated conflicts in Bosnia Ira and Afghanistan put together Officially it was brought to an end by a treaty in 2003 but in reality the east of the country is still a haze of uncontrolUnder cover of this haze the country s mineral riches have simply been removed on a massive scale By the turn of the millennium Congo s resource rich eastern areas were being stripped in bulk by the occupying forces Rwanda for instance a country with minimal gold deposits was exporting 29 million worth of the metal annually it has no diamonds at all but exported up to 40 million of them a year Between 1998 and 2004 Rwanda produced 2200 metric tons of tin ore but somehow exported 6800 metric tons of it Neighbouring countries were literally driving truckloads of minerals out of DRC and back to their own capitals to be sold on the international marketCongo became a self service country The scramble for Africa was now being organised by the Africans themselves Economic exploitation is of course only one part of the story the other is the myriad personal miseries that the ethnic violence has brought about The individual stories that van Reybrouck alights on to illustrate this chaos are sobering indeed sick making Sensitive readers may wish to skim ahead a little To pick just one illustrative case Masika Katsua for instance a forty one year old Nande woman had to watch as Tutsi soldiers hacked her husband s arm off in front of her then removed his intestines and heart and chopped the rest of him into small pieces sobbing she was then made to gather the chunks together on the floor and lie down on them while twelve men raped her Her daughters in the next room were also raped and impregnated now Masika is raising their children and when they ask her about her scars she can t bring herself to tell them that it was their fathers who did itI mean I can write down the English words to convey these facts But understanding what really happened in rooms like Masika s hut and in the minds of victims and perpetrators of a thousand similar scenes reuires greater acts of comprehension and sympathy than I am capable of making without losing my grip on sanity This among other things is the challenge of reading about the CongoAnd in case you are tempted to write the whole situation off as some kind of unsophisticated pre modern mess that could only happen far away van Reybrouck is having none of it This ethnic violence he argues isno atavism no primitive reflex but the logical result of the scarcity of land in a wartime economy in the service of globalization and in that sense a foreshadowing of what is in store for an overpopulated planet Congo does not lag behind the course of history but runs out in frontI hasten to point out that this is not just a political history Van Reybrouck has compiled his book from a great deal of personal research oral histories and interviews and he does spend time on the country s social movements and popular culture from the wild local religious efflorescence to the Rumble in the Jungle so much attention is paid to Congolese music in particular that I was able to compile a whole accompanying playlist The last chapter which examines the Congolese expat community in Guangzhou China is a virtuoso and eye opening essay on globalisation in its own rightBut it s certainly the political ironies and their human cost that stay with you This is a country whose natural resources are the bedrock of the modern world and yet many people eat only once every two days and healthcare is so basic that in some areas cuts are treated with brake fluid and burns with vaginal mucus It s an incredible story with a determinedly un Eurocentric sensibility English language readers are lucky to have Sam Garrett s very comfortable translation from the original Flemish It s fiercely relevant and contains multitudes and should infinitely repay the attention from anyone who can stand to take a good long look All about Prayer (Salah) Activity Book (Discover Islam Sticker Activity Books) just left They also had the help of such notorious and picturesuely named mercenaries as Colonel Mad Mike Hoare and Jean Black Jack Schramme even Che Guevara made a brief appearance before uite clearly deciding Fuck this A four way power struggle between the major political figures Kasavubu Lumumba Tshombe and Mobutu was like one of Shakespeare s history plays and made worse by Cold War wrangling among the international communityIt was Katangan forces and their international accomplices who eventually murdered the country s first prime minister Patrice Lumumba Lumumba has traditionally been seen as something of a tragic hero f ted in the West as the great lost hope of Congolese politics this was certainly the received wisdom when I worked in newsrooms But van Reybrouck argues convincingly that he was irreparably weak and inexperienced flailing wildly on international assignments and offending the State Department by asking them to arrange him a blonde call girl during his stay Five years and as many governments after independence the whole system was swept aside in a military coup led by Lieutenant General Mobutu with backing from the CIAMobutu brought stability but it was the stability of totalitarianism He Africanised everything European Christian names were out replaced by ancestral postnoms so his own name changed from Joseph D sir Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga while all the placenames changed too including that of the country which now became Za re after a cartographer s error the Portuguese who first landed at the Congo estuary had asked locals what the mass of water was called Nzadi they replied River It was written down as Za re I couldn t help being reminded of the mountain in the Terry Pratchett novel which translates to your finger you fool the idea being that explorers simply grabbed the first native pointed at a landmark and asked What s that Part of Mobutu s nation building was a crackdown on tribalism from now on everyone was simply a Za rian So obsessed was he with national unity that a popular RUBY ON RAILS. Desarrollo práctico de aplicaciones Web jaillir I m going to come but instead a va za re But all of this was predicated on a monumentally strong centre a dictatorship which arrogated all the country s resources and riches to one central figure plus a few family and friends While most people saw spending power vanish and lived in complete deprivation Mobutu kicked back in luxury in Gbadolite an astonishing palace complex hidden in the The School - Fantasy Romance : Volume 3 jungle This Brobdingnagian extravagance featured an international airport big enough to land a Concorde three palaces covered in Nobili parole, nobili abusi jewels and marble banks a hypermodern hotel a new hospital and even a Chinese village with pagodas and imported Chinese people Here Mobutu indulged himself with his ministers wives and the two identical twins he was sleeping with one of whom he hastily married ahead of an official visit from the PopeAs so often in this book you find yourself desperate to see someone get rid of this revolting ogre only to be schooled yet again in the need to be careful what you wish for Again the trouble started in the east Following the Rwandan genocide when the Tutsi dominated RPF took power in Kigali thousands of Hutus fled over the border into eastern Za re fearing reprisals Subseuent events would show how right their instincts were In fact many of the Hutus that entered Za re had had nothing to do with the genocide though some elements of the Hutu armies were among them and were able to organise themselves near the border This was the reason or if you prefer the pretext for Rwanda to launch a full invasion of Za re supported by Uganda and with the longtime Congolese rebel leader Laurent D sir Kabila as the figureheadKabila marched through the country pausing at every Hutu refugee camp to chop everybody to death with machetes until he reached Kinshasa where to make a long story short he deposed Mobutu and became president in May 1997 Curtain This is what s known as the First Congo WarThe Second Congo War picks up immediately from its preuel Kabila desperate to show that he was not in thrall to his foreign backers promptly ordered all Rwandan and Ugandan troops out of the country which was now renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo In response invoking the need to protect Tutsi groups in eastern DRC they simply invaded again only this time against Kabila instead of with him Having massacred thousands of Hutu refugees during his own march to power Kabila now with Rest: Why You Get More Done When You Work Less just one illustrative case Masika Katsua for instance a forty one year old Nande woman had to watch as Tutsi soldiers hacked her husband s arm off in front of her then removed his intestines and heart and chopped the rest of him into small pieces sobbing she was then made to gather the chunks together on the floor and lie down on them while twelve men raped her Her daughters in the next room were also raped and impregnated now Masika is raising their children and when they ask her about her scars she can t bring herself to tell them that it was their fathers who did itI mean I can write down the English words to convey these facts But understanding what really happened in rooms like Masika s hut and in the minds of victims and perpetrators of a thousand similar scenes reuires greater acts of comprehension and sympathy than I am capable of making without losing my grip on sanity This among other things is the challenge of reading about the CongoAnd in case you are tempted to write the whole situation off as some kind of unsophisticated pre modern mess that could only happen far away van Reybrouck is having none of it This ethnic violence he argues isno atavism no primitive reflex but the logical result of the scarcity of land in a wartime economy in the service of globalization and in that sense a foreshadowing of what is in store for an overpopulated planet Congo does not lag behind the course of history but runs out in frontI hasten to point out that this is not Style Your Mind: A Workbook and Lifestyle Guide For Women Who Want to Design Their Thoughts, Empower Themselves, and Build a Beautiful Life just a political history Van Reybrouck has compiled his book from a great deal of personal research oral histories and interviews and he does spend time on the country s social movements and popular culture from the wild local religious efflorescence to the Rumble in the Jungle so much attention is paid to Congolese music in particular that I was able to compile a whole accompanying playlist The last chapter which examines the Congolese expat community in Guangzhou China is a virtuoso and eye opening essay on globalisation in its own rightBut it s certainly the political ironies and their human cost that stay with you This is a country whose natural resources are the bedrock of the modern world and yet many people eat only once every two days and healthcare is so basic that in some areas cuts are treated with brake fluid and burns with vaginal mucus It s an incredible story with a determinedly un Eurocentric sensibility English language readers are lucky to have Sam Garrett s very comfortable translation from the original Flemish It s fiercely relevant and contains multitudes and should infinitely repay the attention from anyone who can stand to take a good long look

  • Hardcover
  • 680
  • Congo Een geschiedenis
  • David Van Reybrouck
  • Dutch
  • 15 March 2018
  • 9789023456636